Professor Carl Baudenbacher

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    Dr. jur. University of Berne 1978, Habilitation University of Zurich 1982

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    • Professor at several German universities
    • Chair of Private, Commercial and Economic Law University of St. Gallen 1987 – 2013
    • Permanent Visiting Professor University of Texas at Austin 1993 – 2004
    • Member of the Liechtenstein Supreme Court 1994 – 1995
    • Judge of the EFTA Court 1995 – 2018
    • President of the EFTA Court 2003 – 2017
    • Princely member of the Liechtenstein Judicial Selection Committee

    Carl has enjoyed a distinguished career as a judge, university professor, arbitrator, consultant, author of legal and political publications, political advisor and speaker, in recent years with a particular emphasis on the legal implications of Brexit. A Swiss national, Professor Baudenbacher was the Liechtenstein Judge of the EFTA Court from 1995 and served as the Court’s President from 15 January 2003 to 31 December 2017.

    He presided over 234 cases and was the Judge Rapporteur in many of the EFTA Court’s landmark decisions. He has advised members of HM Government and HM Shadow Government, members of both Houses of Parliament, the First Ministers of Wales and Scotland, members of the Irish Government and of the Government of Northern Ireland. He has furthermore given evidence to the House of Lords EU Justice Sub-Committee and to the House of Commons‘ Exiting the European Union Committee.

    From 1987 to 2013, Carl held the Chair of Private, Commercial and Economic Law at the University of St. Gallen (Switzerland). Between 1993 and 2005 Carl taught European and International Law as a Permanent Visiting Professor at the University of Texas School of Law. From 1994 to 1995 he served as a member of the Supreme Court of the Principality of Liechtenstein. In 2007 he was a member of the Independent Commission of Inquiry for the Investigation of the Events Surrounding the Hypo Group Alpe-Adria established by the Government of the Republic of Austria (‘Griss Commission’). Carl holds an honorary doctorate in economics from Leuphana University in Germany. In 2015, 2016 and 2017 Basler Zeitung named him as one of Switzerland’s most influential thinkers. In 2019 he became the first non-EU lawyer to be made an honorary member of the European Lawyers’ Union (U.A.E.).

    An experienced legal expert and arbitrator, Carl has advised private clients as well as the Swiss Parliament, the Swiss Government, the Governments of the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Russian Federation, Israel and the Canton of St.Gallen. He is the author or editor of over 40 books and has written over 250 articles. His research activities encompass Swiss, European and International business and economic law.

    Professor Baudenbacher resigned from the EFTA Court bench on 09 April 2018 and has selected Monckton Chambers as the ideal set from which to develop a UK practice. He is focusing on both the Continent and United Kingdom across the full spectrum of EEA/EU law, Swiss business law and certain aspects of German business law and involves consulting, litigation strategy, arbitration and speaking engagements.

    Specialised experience and knowledge

    • European courts and procedures
    • EU fundamental freedoms law
    • EEA fundamental freedoms law
    • Economic human rights law
    • Contract law
    • Corporate law
    • Unfair competition law
    • Antitrust law
    • IP law
    • Public procurement law
    • Banking law
    • Brexit
    • Switzerland – EU relations
    • Recent work

      Advising private clients and law firms

      • Litigation strategy
      • Drafting and reviewing legal documents
      • Writing legal opinions
      • Coaching lawyers teams
      • Conducting mock trials
      • Drafting requests for preliminary reference orders to the ECJ and the EFTA Court
      • Acting as an arbitrator
      • Acting as an expert witness (participation in oral hearings, being cross-examined)
      • Media support (including writing press releases, giving interviews, television and radio appearances)

      Advising Governments and Parliaments

      Swiss Government, Swiss Parliament, Government of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Government of the Russian Federation, Government of Israel, Government of Iceland, HM Government and HM Shadow Government, both Houses of the British Parliament, First Ministers of Wales and Scotland, members of the Irish Government and of the Government of Northern Ireland, Government of Morocco.

      Evidence given to the UK House of Lords EU Justice Sub-Committee and to the UK House of Commons‘ Exiting the European Union Committee, to the Foreign Committee of the Swiss National Council and to the Economic and Taxation Committee of the Swiss National Council.

      Member of the Independent Commission of Inquiry for the Investigation of the Events Surrounding the Hypo Group Alpe-Adria established by the Government of the Republic of Austria (‘Griss Commission’), 2014.

      Projects and cases

    • Major arbitration cases
      • Member of the legal team, author of legal opinions and expert witness in arbitration over a price adjustment dispute concerning an electricity supply contract in Iceland
      • Chairman of a three member arbitration tribunal over a price adjustment dispute concerning a gas supply contract in Germany
      • Author of a legal opinion and expert witness in arbitration over a take-or-pay dispute under a long-term gas supply contract between a Russian supplier and a Czech customer
      • Author of a legal opinion and expert witness in arbitration over a dispute over the termination of a nuclear technology joint venture between a French and a German firm
    • Major EFTA court cases as judge rapporteur
      • E-2/97 Maglite (international exhaustion of trademark rights),
      • E-3/97 Opel Norge (admission to a motor vehicle distribution system),
      • E-1/98 Astra Norge (abuse of copyright),
      • E-1/99 Finanger (taking a ride in a motor vehicle driven by an intoxicated motorist),
      • E-3/00 Kellogg’s (nutritional argument and precautionary principle in food law),
      • E-1/02 University of Oslo (positive discrimination in favour of the under-represented gender),
      • E-3/02 Paranova v Merck (repackager of pharmaceuticals adding his own design),
      • E-2/03 Ásgeirsson (rules of origin in trade in fish, fundamental rights),
      • E-1/04 Fokus Bank (taxation of outbound dividends),
      • E-4/04 Pedicel (national prohibition against alcohol advertisement),
      • E-01/06 Gaming Machines (State gambling monopoly),
      • E-3/06 (State gambling monopolies),
      • E-1/10 Periscopus (no adjustment of bid price with reference to term “market price” under the Takeover Bid Directive),
      • E-14/10 Konkurrenten (State aid),
      • E-15/10 Norway Post (scope of judicial review of fining decisions by competition authorities),
      • E-9/11 Regulated Markets I (ownership limitations and voting rights restrictions in stock exchanges  and central securities depositories),
      • E-14/11 DB Schenker I (private plaintiff as a private attorney general, presumption against access to documents limited to merger and State aid cases),
      • E-16/11 Icesave I (no liability of the State for deposits in foreign branches of a domestic bank in a systemic crisis),
      • E-18/11 Irish Bank (teleological interpretation of the Winding Up Directive, modalities of the preliminary ruling procedure in the EFTA pillar),
      • E-15/12 Wahl (denial of entry into Iceland of a Norwegian Hells Angel under the Citizenship Directive),
      • E-27/13 Gunnarsson and E-25/13 Engilbertsson (indexation of mortgage loans, unfair terms),
      • E-14/15 Holship (collective bargaining and industrial action vs. competition law and fundamental freedoms),
      • E-29/15 Sorpa (municipal body capable of abusing a dominant position),
      • E-3/16 Ski Taxi (joint bidding, restriction of competition by object),
      • E-5/16 Vigeland (trademark registration of a work of art after expiry of copyright protection, public domain),
      • E-16/16 Fosen-Linjen (simple breach of public procurement law sufficient to trigger liability of contracting authority),
      • E-15/16 Yara (risk of tax avoidance, prohibition of abuse of rights),
      • E-19/16 Thue (travel time is working time under the Working Time Directive).

      Presidential orders, inter alia, in Cases

      • E-16/11 Icesave I (admission of the European Commission as an intervener),
      • E-18/14 Wow Air (allocation of slots at congested airports, protection of competition, accelerated preliminary ruling procedure),
      • E-21/16 Nobile (judicial independence, integrity of the Court, accelerated preliminary ruling procedure).
    • Significant publications


      • Towards general standards concerning the independence and impartiality of arbitrators, in: Christian Cascante/Andreas Spahlinger/Stephan Wilske (Hrsg.), Global wisdom on business transactions, international law and dispute resolution, Festschrift für Gerhard Wegen zum 65. Geburtstag, 20 April 2015, 575-591.
      • “Law – Made in Germany” – Has it paid off?, in: Werner F. Ebke/Dirk Olzen/Otto Sandrock (Hrsg.), Festschrift für Siegfried H. Elsing zum 65. Geburtstag, 2015, 731-743.
      • Arbitration in Public International Disputes, in: Baudenbacher, Carl (Hrsg.), Dispute Resolution, Stuttgart: German Law Publishers 2009, 265-297 (with Frank Bremer).
      • Enforcement of EC and EEA Competition Rules by Arbitration Tribunals Inside and Outside the EU, in: Ehlermann, Claus/ Atanasiu, Isabela, European Competition Law Annual 2001: Effective Private Enforcement of EC Antitrust Law, Oxford – Portland Oregon 2003, 339-360.
      • Decentralization of EC Competition Law Enforcement and Arbitration, Columbia Journal of European Law (Colum. J. E. Eur. L.) 2002, 1-18 (with Imelda Higgins).
      • Die Bedeutung des EG-Kartellrechts für Schweizer Schiedsgerichte, Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für Schweizerisches Recht 20, Basel: Helbing & Lichtenhahn, 1996, ISBN: 3-7190-1503-3 (mit Anton K. Schnyder),


      • After Brexit: Is the EEA an Option for the United Kingdom?, European Law Reporter ELR  2016, 134-142.
      • After Brexit: EEA plus as a solution for the U.K., Neue Zeitschrift für Kartellrecht NZKart 2016, Kommemtar.

      EU and EEA law

      • Carl Baudenbacher, Editor, The Fundamental Principles of EEA Law. EEA-ities, Springer 2017.
      • Carl Baudenbacher, Editor, The Handbook of EEA Law, January 2016.
      • Webseiten als dauerhafte Datenträger, GRUR Int, 6-2015, 519-528 (with Theresa Haas).
      • Der Syndikus der Gegenwart – Interessensvertreter oder Anwalt des Rechts?, NJW 17/2015, 1211-1215 (with Philipp Speitler).
      • Verfahren vor den Europäischen Gerichten in Wettbewerbs- und Beihilfesachen, in: Münchener Kommentar zum Europäischen und Deutschen Wettbewerbsrecht. Band 1: Europäisches Wettbewerbsrecht. München 2014, 3049-3239 (with Dirk Buschle, Moritz Am Ende).
      • The EFTA Court and the Court of Justice of the European Union: Coming in Parts But Winning Together, in: The Court of Justice and the Construction of Europe: Analyses and Perspectives on Sixty Years of Case-law. Court of Justice of the European Union (Ed.), The Hague 2013, 183-203.
      • The EFTA Court’s Relationship with the Advocates General of the European Court of Justice, in: De Rome à Lisbonne  les juridictions de l’Union européenne à la croisée des chemins : Mélanges en l’honneur de Paolo Mengozzi, Brussels 2013, 341 ff.
      • Die Schweiz als Speerspitze des Kartellrechts in Europa? – Kritische Anmerkungen zum geplanten Bundeswettbewerbsgericht, Kartellrecht in Theorie und Praxis, Festschrift für Cornelis Canenbley zum 70. Geburtstag, München 2012, 37-54.
      • Die Gerichtsarchitektur des EWR – eine Betrachtung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung energierechtlicher Entscheidungen, in: Neuere europäische Vorgaben für den Energiebinnenmarkt. W. Löwer (Hrsg.) Bonner Gespräch zum Energierecht, Band 5. V&R unipress 2010.
      • The EFTA Court in Action – Five Lectures, Stuttgart: German Law Publishers 2010, ISBN: 978-3-941389-04-5.
      • Overcoming the financial crisis in the banking sector. The role of European Competition Policy, Concurrences No 2/2010, (with Frank Bremer), 45-52.
      • European State Aid and Merger Control in the Financial Crisis – From Negative to Positive Integration, Journal of European Competition Law & Practice (JECLAP), Vol. 1 No. 4, 2010, (with Frank Bremer) 267-285.
      • If Not EEA State Liability, Then What? Reflections Ten Years after the EFTA Court’s Sveinbjörnsdóttir Ruling, Chicago Journal of International Law (Chi. J. Int’l L) 2009, 333-358.
      • The EFTA Court, the ECJ, and the Latter’s Advocates General – a Tale of Judicial Dialogue, in: Arnull, Anthony/ Eeckhout, Piet/ Tridimas Takis (Hrsg.), Continuity and Change in EU Law: Essays in Honour of Sir Francis Jacobs, Oxford: Oxford University Press 2008, 90-122.
      • The CFI’s Gencor Judgment – Some Remarks on its Global Implications in: Baudenbacher, Carl et al. (Hrsg.), Liber Amicorum en l’honneur de/in honour of Bo Vesterdorf, Brussels: Bruylant 2007, 543-568.
      • Fundamental Rights in EEA Law or: How far from Bosphorus is the European Economic Area Agreement? in: Breitenmoser, Stephan et al. (Hrsg.), Human Rights, Democracy and the Rule of Law: Liber amicorum Luzius Wildhaber, Baden-Baden: Nomos 2007, 59-89.
      • The CFI’s Microsoft judgment – Three seconds that changed the IT world European Law Reporter (ELR) 2007, 342-357.
      • The Definition of the Precautionary Principle in European Law: A Product of Judicial Dialogue, in: Baudenbacher, Carl/ Bull, Henrik (Eds.), European Integration Through Interaction of Legal Regimes, IUSEF Nr. 50, Center for European Law, University of Oslo, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget 2007, 1-33.
      • Was ist vom guten alten Europäischen Modell der Wettbewerbspolitik übrig geblieben? in: Wettbewerb in einem größeren Europa. Referate des XXXIX. FIW-Symposiums, Köln 2007, Heft 215, 13-32.
      • Governments before the EFTA Court, Liber Amicorum, Festskrift til Claus Gulmann, Copenhagen 2006, 23–49, Die Drittstaatenabkommen der EG auf dem Gebiet des Wettbewerbsrechts
      • in: Loewenheim, Ulrich/Meessen, Karl M./Riesenkampff, Alexander (Hrsg.), Kommentar zum europäischen und deutschen Kartellrecht Bd. 1, München: Beck 2005, 1287-1469.
      • The EFTA Court Ten Years On, in: Baudenbacher, Carl/ Tresselt, Per/Örlygsson, Thorgeir (Hrsg.), The EFTA Court Ten Years On, Oxford and Portland, Oregon: Hart Publishing 2005, 13–51.
      • The EFTA Court: An Actor in the European Judicial Dialogue, Fordham International Law Journal 2005, 353–391.
      • The Implementation of Decisions of the ECJ and of the EFTA Court in Member States’ Domestic Legal Orders, Texas International Law Journal (Tex. Int’l L. J.) 2005, 383–416.
      • Niederlassungsfreiheit für EWR-Gesellschaften nach Überseering (zu OLG Frankfurt a. M., 28. 5. 2003 – 23 U 35/02), Praxis des Internationalen Privat- und Verfahrensrechts (IPRax) 2004, 26-31 (mit Dirk Buschle).
      • The ECJ’s Judgment in the IMS Health Case, (IMS Health GmbH & Co. OHG ./. NDC Health GmbH & Co. KG, judgment of 29 April 2004, C-418/01), European Law Reporter (ELR) 2004, 190-195.
      • Judicial Globalization: New Development or Old Wine in New Bottles, Texas International Law Journal (Tex. Int’l L. J.) 2003, 505 ff.
      • Judicialization of European Competition Policy. Annual Proceedings – Fordham Corporate Law Institute 2003, 353-368.
      • Some Comments on Competition Law and Compulsory Licensing, European Law Reporter (ELR) 2003, 270-274.
      • Immaterialgüterrecht und Handelspolitik, Zeitschrift für Schweizerisches Recht (ZSR) 2001, 207-231.
      • Das europäische Modell bei Kartellverbot und Missbrauchsaufsicht – ein Exportartikel?, in: Schwerpunkte des Kartellrechts 1997: Referate des XXV. FIW-Seminars, Köln: Heymanns 1998, 9–26.
      • A Brief Guide to European State Aid Law. European business law and practice series (13), The Hague: Kluwer Law International 1997, ISBN: 90-411-0939-0.
      • Between Homogeneity and Independence: The Legal Position of the EFTA Court in the European Economic Area, Columbia Journal of European Law (Col. J. of Eur. L.) Vol. 3, No. 2 1996/97, 169–227.
      • Auftragsnachfolge und Betriebsübergang im europäischen Recht, Der Betrieb (DB) 1996, 2177–2181.
    • Swiss law
      • Kommentar zu den Artikeln 552-556, 594-597, 620-625, 772-775, 828-831 des Obligationenrechts, in: Honsell, Heinrich et al. (Hrsg.), Obligationenrecht, Kommentar zum Schweizerischen Privatrecht, Bd. II, Basel/Genf/München: Helbing & Lichtenhahn 2016.
      • Swiss Economic Law Facing the Challenges of International and European Law, Report to the Swiss Jurists Day 2012, ZSR 2012 II, 419-673.
      • Länderbericht Schweiz, in: Lauterkeitsrecht in Europa. Eine Sammlung von Länderberichten zum Recht gegen unlauteren Wettbewerb, Schmidt-Kessel, M., Schubmehl, S. (Hrsg.) München 2011, 585-631.
      • Lauterkeitsrecht, Kommentar zum Bundesgesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb (UWG), Helbing & Lichtenhahn: Basel/Genf/München 2001, St.Gallen/Berlin: WIV Wirtschaftswissenschaftlicher Verlag 2001, ISBN: 3-7190-1880-6.
      • Weltkongress Prozessrecht 1995: Landesbericht der Schweiz, Basel: Helbing & Lichtenhahn, 1997, (mit Urs Josef Cavelti) ISBN: 3-7190-1579-3.
      • Wirtschafts-, schuld- und verfahrensrechtliche Grundprobleme der allgemeinen Geschäftsbedingungen. Habilitationsschrift an der rechts- und staatswissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Zürich, Zürich: Schulthess Polygraphischer Verlag 1983, ISBN: 3-7255-2332-0.
      • Suggestivwerbung und Lauterkeitsrecht, Schweizer Schriften zum Handels- und Wirtschaftsrecht 28, Diss. Bern, Zürich: Schulthess Polygraphischer Verlag 1978, ISBN: 3-7255-1935-8.
    • Comparative law
      • Rechtsvergleichende Überlegungen zur Business Judgment Rule, Schweizer Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Finanzmarktrecht, 01/2016 (together with Lisa Schwarz).
      • Einheitliche Haftungsstandards für den privaten und den öffentlichen Sektor – Lehren aus dem Fall Hypo Alpe Adria, Zeitschrift für Finanzmarktrecht, 12/2016.
      • Von der Societas Leonina des römischen Rechts zu Theorie und Praxis des Moral Hazard im modernen Wirtschaftsrecht, AJP 2015, 839-848.
      • Суд Европейской Ассоциации Свободной Торговли Журнал Зарубежного Законодательства и Сравнительного Правоведения, №6 (31), 2011. С. 4-20
      • Trademark Law and Parallel Imports in a Globalized World – Recent Developments in Europe with Special Regard to the Legal Situation in the United States, Fordham International Law Journal (Fordham Int’l L. J.), March 1999, Volume 22, Number 3, 645–695.
      • Zum Kundschaftsentschädigungsaanspruch des Agenten im schweizerischen Recht. Rechtsvergleichende Betrachtungen unter Berücksichtigung des deutschen Rechts, Juristenzeitung (JZ) 1989, 919–927.
    • Government consulting
      • Bericht der unabhängigen Untersuchungskommission der österreichischen Bundesregierung zur transparenten Aufklärung der Vorkommnisse rund um die Hypo Group Alpe Adria / Report of the Independent Commission of the Austrian Government which Investigated the Events Surrounding the Hypo Group Alpe‐Adria, Wien 2014 (together wird Irmgard Griss, Manuel Ammann, Ernst-Wilhelm Contzen, and Claus-Peter Weber), 344 Seiten, mit deutscher Zusammenfassung und mit english summary.
      • El modelo de consulta institucional de Suiza (2016).
      • Evaluation des Kartellgesetzes: Institutionelles Setting -Vertikale Abreden – Sanktionierung von Einzelpersonen – Zivilrechtliche Verfahren
      • Strukturberichterstattung des Staatssekretariats für Wirtschaft, Nr. 44/3, Bern: Staatssekretariat für Wirtschaft SECO 2009, ISBN: 3-907846-77-X (with English summary).
      • Zur Europafähigkeit der Urheberrechtsgesetzes-Reform, WIV-Stichworte 1/ WIV-Stichworte zum Europarecht, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag: St.Gallen/Berlin, 1991 ISBN/ISSN: 3-909161-05-7 (together with Irene Klauer).
      • Verbesserung der rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen grenzüberschreitender Wirtschaftstätigkeit: Gutachten zu Händen des Regierungsrates des Kantons St. Gallen, St. Gallen/Berlin, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag 1995, ISBN: 3-909161-14-.


    • Publications